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First Aid For Construction Sites

10/04/2017

Construction sites can be dangerous places to work.
Every year, many people are injured from on-site accidents with such incidents occasionally resulting in death. This poster is intended as a guide for the qualified first aider and covers the medical procedures for the most common injuries and trauma that occur on construction sites.

ELECTRICAL BURNS

Electrical burns can be caused either by high or low voltage current.
High voltage currents can ‘jump’ or ‘arc’ distances of up to 18 meters or over. In such instances do not approach the casualty. Stay at least 25 meters away until the power source has been turned off by an official agency.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

With all electrical burns, there may be visible wounds to the skin where the electric current has entered and exited the body. Internal damage to the body, such as an irregular heart beat or cardiac arrest may have also occurred.

TREATMENT:
1. Approach the scene if safe to do so and switch off the power supply.
2. Assess the casualty’s airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.
3. Treat any burns you find appropriately.
4. Reassure the casualty.
5. Dial 999 and request an ambulance, providing clear and precise details of the casualty’s condition.

MANAGING BLEEDS

B – Barrier Put gloves on if available.
L – Locate & Examine Look for any foreign objects.
E – External Direct Pressure Keep pressure on the wound.
E – Elevation Elevate wound above the level of the heart.
D – Dressings (x2) Apply one dressing at a time up to a maximum of two.
If blood should seep through both dressings, remove them and apply a new dressing.

CRUSH INJURIES
Crush injuries can cause extensive damage to muscles and tissues if a heavy object is left on the casualty for a period of time. Complications arise when toxins build up around the injured area.

"Crush Syndrome" arises when the object is removed and the toxins are released
and circulated around the body. This will eventually lead to kidney failure.

FOR A CASUALTY CRUSHED FOR LESS THAN 15 MINUTES
1. Remove the object from the casualty as soon as possible.
2. Assess the casualty for further injuries and prioritise accordingly.
3. Immobilize any suspected fractures and check for distal circulation.
4. Reassure the casualty.
5. Dial 999 and request an ambulance, providing clear and precise details of the casualty’s condition.

FOR A CASUALTY CRUSHED FOR MORE THAN 15 MINUTES
1. Do not remove the objects.
2. Dial 999 and request an ambulance, providing clear and precise details of the incident.
3. Reassure the casualty until the emergency services arrive.

FALLS

SPINAL INJURIES
Any fall of 6ft or greater can easily result in spinal injuries.
If you suspect that the casualty has suffered a spinal injury resulting from a fall:
1.  Follow the DRSABC procedure.
2.  Do not move the casualty.
3.  Contact the EMS and follow their instructions

HEAD INJURIES
All Head injuries are serious and should always be referred to hospital.
Recognise the key signs of concussion:
1.  Confusion / Disorientation.
2.  Drowsiness / Excessive sleepiness.
3.  Vision problems.
4.  Severe headaches / Nausea /Vomiting.
5.  Any loss of responsiveness.


FRACTURES
Remember the following steps:
1.  Instruct the casualty to remain still.
2.  Examine for any blood loss and treat first
3.  Support and immobilise injury if casualty is unable to do so themselves.
4.  Contact the EMS

MANAGING CHEMICAL BURNS

1.  Ensure that the area is safe and that you are protected from the chemical. This mayinvolve wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
2.  Locate the chemical data sheet. This will include details of PPE requirements and specific first aid procedures.
3.  The burn area should be flooded with water for 20 minutes to ensure that there is no contamination from the chemical to other areas of the body.
4.  All chemical burns require professional medical advice following first aid treatment.

GETTING HELP

Lift the receiver and wait for the dialing tone.
Dial 999 in UK (112 in Europe).
The Operator will ask you which service you require. Once you have stated
"Ambulance"  you will be connected to Ambulance control. The operator will ask
you a set list of questions.

BE PREPARED TO:
1. Confirm your telephone number.
2. Give an accurate description of the incident and casualty’s condition.
3. Give your exact location.
4. Assist the ambulance crew by arranging for a colleague to meet them outside your construction site.

DO NOT Hang up at any stage of the conversation.
The operator will terminate the call when appropriate.

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